The “Taken Generation” is not a Māori Problem – it is a Colonial Racism Problem.

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By Tina Ngata

If you venture into the websites for Ministry for Women, Ministry for Children and Ministry of Health, the images and language around your maternal healthcare journey, parental and child support paint a very particular, and positive picture.

Smiling brown faces, generally uptilted, the sun on their face – full of hope and aspirations, looking up towards a bright future. Declarations of support for loving, nurturing environments and belief in young people living up to their full potential. The use of our potent moko kauwae as the logo for the Ministry for Women infers the acknowledgement of the sacred role of wāhine in the family and community.

What has been made very clear in Newsroom article that has, this past week, rocked our nation, is that the reality for young Māori mothers is very, very different. Like rats circling a birdnest, Ministry for Children agents come back, again and again, trying to wear down the mother and her family, trying to isolate and cajole, then threaten, intimidate and decieve. It’s a relentless assault upon the young māmā, her family, and her child, a jarring testament to what young Māori mothers are put through within the health system.

This is not a new problem, but what Melanie Reid’s documentary did was put a face to the problem that Māori and Pacific whānau know, already, is out there. We live the reality of these intimidating tactics every day. Our health system has been identified as racist towards Māori from within its own ranks, and by the international Commission for the Elimination of Racism and Discrimination in Geneva. We have known for a long time that Māori children are many times more likely to be taken from their families than Non-Māori. We have known for a long time (and unequivocally so since Mihingārangi Forbes’ Ngā Mōrehu report) of the statecare-to-prison-pipeline. What Melanie Reid did was burst through the systemic walls that protected this practice – put up by the police, hospital staff and the DHB, to expose the human face of this particular dimension of New Zealand’s colonial legacy upon Māori and Pacific whānau.

What is also clear, in the documentary and in the languaging used by the state is that overarchingly these babies are being considered and assessed as individuals, not the child of a mother, a whānau, or a community that is irrevocably damaged by their removal. Certainly not the victims of a racist system that was incepted to disadvantage Non-Pākeha. They are all of these things. They are a mokopuna, and I would go into all of the beautiful, profound meanings of that word except I’m jaded from reading that hollow rhetoric on these state agency websites which have no idea of how to implement that understanding, let alone intention to implement it.

All we need to know right now is that this is not an isolated case in any sense of the word.

Not only do the figures support that excessive uplifts for Māori and Pacific Island whānau are happening nationwide, but we also have evidence to support that the very flawed, deceitful, intimidating process captured by Newshub is also employed as a matter of routine, around the country.

The E Hine – reducing barriers to care for pregnant Māori women under 20 years and their infants study has walked with young Māori mothers aged under 20 thorugh their journey into motherhood in both Hawkes Bay and Wellington, centering them in a story that seeks to understand their lived experience of a health system that is clearly failing both them, their whānau, and certainly their babies. This study included a maternal care system stocktake, interviews with state agencies and service providers, whānau, fathers, and of course the mothers themselves.

Having walked alongside and advocated for a number of young Māori mothers over the years, I can say that the Newsroom video did not in the slightest part shock or surprise me. This is very much what is happening across the country, every day, in hospitals right across Aotearoa. Many who are unfamiliar with the system may assume that you must have demonstrated harm to a child in order to come to the attention of these services. The only thing you need to do is be considered “high risk” and let’s clarify that criteria: the statistical storytelling of our colonial government means that when a Māori mother is xx% more likely to suffer violence, to not engage in healthcare, or to have a difficult birth, this is not treated as an indication of a flawed system, it is treated as an indication of a flawed mother. In that sense, Minister Morgan and her staff who consistently point the finger of blame elsewhere are very much the voice of the system.

Consequently, belonging to the statistical “at risk” category (by virtue of being young and Māori) and walking into a hospital triggers a systemically racist treadmill of hyper-vigilant surveillance, unrealistic expectations, and increased risk of state assault. If you have the additional criteria of belonging to a Māori mother who was caught up in this treadmill when you were born, this increases the likelihood of state assault significantly. For many other parents it may never occur that going to hospital to give birth or taking their child to hospital for an illness will result in having them removed permanently taken, but this is a real consideration for young Māori and Pacific Island parents. The young wāhine on E Hine were also therefore not unique in facing this threat.

Here are some of their experiences:

“Cause CYF got involved with my first son so we’ve had all that stuff and we’ve had to be like monitored… You never know what’s going on because they never tell you anything… I don’t like it. (Ngaio, interview 3)”

“They turned up on my doorstep… apparently we were beating up the kids… ‘Do you see anything on my kids? Do they look hurt? No, they look happy.’ And I wouldn’t let them in my house, because my house was a big mess, and ‘cause they would have claimed that as neglect… So I just talked to them at the door. And they just wanted me to strip my kids down so they could see them and see if there’s any bruises. (Mere, interview 6)”

“[CYF were] trying to trick me with questions like, ‘So you would leave your daughter with your mum if you go out drinking and that and do drugs and that?… And then they tried to ask me that again and I told them again, ‘I don’t do it!’ They just wouldn’t listen to me. Trying to be real assholes… It was just ticking me off. (Marama, interview 1)”

 “Mum had spoken to them not to speak to me by myself, a few times… but they kept coming in and asking me questions, and I had already said to them, ‘I’m not in the state of mind to answer questions,’ and they’d just come back in, keep on coming in 78 and out… I was not in the state of mind to be answering questions from them, I was worrying about my son, not them. (Tia, interview 2)”[1]

This last quote is from a young mother who came under Ministry for Children surveillance while in hospital with her baby son who had nearly died of SIDS. While he was recovering, the Ministry agents and hospital social workers closed in on her in a manner she found intrusive, intimidating and judgmental, and the pressure remained that way over her for months afterwards.

Over the years I have seen this betrayal of trust – young mothers who go into hospital and are then subjected to questionnaires asking a raft of hypothetical, convoluted questions, or intrusive questioning about their homelife that lack clarity and context. In some cases the young mothers innocently believe the social worker is there to help them, and answer the questions openly, not knowing that the information is being interpreted and used to justify putting them under scrutiny.

So no, what Melanie Reids reported on was not an isolated case. Nor will it be fixed by the replacement of any one person. Should accountability be held by Grainne Moss and Tracy Martin? Absolutely. But just at this treatment is not isolated to Newshub’s report, accountability is not isolated to those specific workers who facilitated that invasion, or even the leaders of that agency. This is a systemic issue that is fed into through the realms of education, of health, of justice and corrections, of economy, of culture and heritage. This is a colonial, racist system doing what it was set up to do from its very inception: dispossess Indigenous peoples in every way. Make no mistake: the system is NOT broken. It is operating exactly as it is intended.

As Dr. Rawiri Karena points out – the taking of Indigenous children is a purposeful technique of the colonial commonwealth machine that was developed in England for application around the world:

For a clear understanding of how effective this has been we need only look to other settler colonial nations and their records of Indigenous children, youth and adults in state custody:

Country Indigenous % of population % of children in state custody who are Indigenous % of incarcerated youth population who are Indigenous % of incarcerated adult population who are Indigenous
Aotearoa 14.9% 59% 70% 50.7%
Australia 3.3% 36.9% 51% 27%
Canada 4.9% 52.2% 46% 26%
USA – Alaska 14.8% 50.9% 38% 33.2%
USA – Sth Dakota 9.43% 52.5% 53% 29%
USA – Hawai’i 10% 48% 50.5% 39%

Now if you look at these locations, all of the Indigenous groups associated to them are radically different from each other, and there are even radical internal Indigenous differences for countries like Australia and Canada. We do not have some cultural similarity in common that predisposes us to crime, but what we do have in common is an experience of colonisation.

As Moana Jackson states:

“Māori and other Indigenous peoples aren’t born genetically poor nor collectively dysfunctional. Instead, it has been the dispossession through colonisation that has created the deprivation and that has destroyed the cohesion of once strong family units. No Māori prisoner can be isolated from the collective costs of that traumatic dispossession”.

Indeed, in reflection of the above statistics, it is quite clear that no Indigenous prisoner can be isolated from the cost of their traumatic dispossession from their whānau. As Khylee Quince so poignantly recalls in her recent article for Newsroom:

Over 70 percent of our prison population has a care and protection background – many removed from families into state care. Children in care are 107 times more likely to be imprisoned by age 20 than other children.

Equally disturbing and connected – the “State Care” to mental health pipeline:

 

So no, this is not an isolated event – it is not isolated in terms of the nature of the uplift, it is not isolated in terms of its causing factor, it is not isolated in terms of its implications across a child’s life, or that of the mother, it is not even unique to Aotearoa – and we cannot treat it as such. It is not an Aotearoa problem, it is not a Māori problem. It is a racism problem.

We cannot continue to look at these issues besetting us – abuse of Māori and Pacific Islanders in state care, homeless Māori and Pacific Islanders, hyper-incarceration of Māori and Pacific Islanders, higher mortality rates for Māori and Pacific Islanders, and the taking of Māori and Pacific Island children from their homes – and assess them independently as if the core issue of colonial racism is not the driving factor. How many times must our government continue to address these issues at an agency level before it will accept that the entire government system needs an overhaul?

In the same article, Khylee recalled:

A couple of months ago I met with a Māori inmate in Mt Eden Prison. He was 50 years old, and told me that his cellmate had first been his room-mate when they were eight years old In Hokio Beach Training School 42 years earlier. He talked of their life-long relationship, and their “graduation” from state care, to youth justice residence, to adult prison as if it was inevitable. This is one of the “pipelines” those of us who work in criminal justice refer to – the “welfare-to-justice pipeline” – a metaphor referring to the connection between being removed or uplifted from family into state care, and offending as young people and as adults.”

It is chilling to think that this is the same trajectory that could have been set were the midwives and whānau of the young woman in the Newsroom story not as vigilant as they were – and equally chilling to consider the other instances, every week, who are not as fortunate. Each of them will have a story as heartbreaking and harrowing as what has rocked the nation in this past week. Ironically, this evening while I was writing this, a tweet from United Nations Rapporteur for Indigenous Rights Vicky Tauli-Corpuz popped up:

Our Māmās are sacred. They are strong, resilient, and capable. Given a chance they are amazing mothers. We must view this as the default for our young Māori mothers – wraparound, whānau inclusive, support and protection for a young Māori Māmā does not just serve her – it serves her baby, her whānau, and as that trajectory continues, it serves our entire community. We must shift the perception from one of a young parent as an individual problem, to that of a community who, in failing them, is failing ourselves.

We must also strip these harmful organizations of the Māori façades they utilize to cloak their ongoing colonial project. The first step on the pathway to justice is truth, and every day that we allow these groups to maintain their lies about caring for and supporting Māori whānau we are denying them an important opportunity to confront their own racism. For 250 years now, colonial forces have assumed rights over Māori lands and Māori bodies that simply are not theirs to take. This will only halt when we call it for what it is – a continuation of the racist colonial project of Indigenous dispossession.

Then, and only then, will we start our journey to true justice for our children, their Māmās, and whānau.

For media enquiries about E Hine – reducing barriers to care for pregnant Maori women under 20 years and their infants please contact Dr Beverly Lawton, Faculty of Health, Victoria University

[1] Adcock, A. (2016). E hine, ngā whāea: Teen mothering in the gaze. (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Victoria University of Wellington

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About Te Wharepora Hou

Te Wharepora Hou is a collective of wāhine who are mainly Tāmaki Makaurau based, but we have strong participation from wāhine based elsewhere in Aotearoa and the world. We have come together to ensure a stronger voice for wāhine and are concerned primarily with the wellbeing of whānau, hapū, iwi and all that pertains to Papatūānuku and the sustenance of our people.
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